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the,black,allay。 Black American Literature(美国黑人文学)Black American LiteratureThe Black American Literature can also called African-American literature, is the body of li本文是大智慧教育网(www.dazhihui008.cn)知识文库频道为大家整理的《the,black,allay》,供大家学习参考

the,black,allay

Black American Literature(美国黑人文学)
篇一:the,black,allay

Black American Literature

The Black American Literature can also called African-American literature, is the body of literature produced in the United States by writers of African descent. It begins with the works of such late 18th-century writers as (菲莉斯·惠特莉) and 阿罗德·爱克伊诺), 文艺复兴)of the 1920s was a time of flowering of literature and the arts. Writers of African-American literature have been recognized by the highest awards, including the Nobel Prize to 托尼·莫里森). Among the themes and issues explored in this literature are the role of African Americans within the larger American society, African-American culture, racism, slavery, and equality. African-American writing has tended to incorporate oral forms, such as spirituals, sermons, gospel music, blues and rap.

As African Americans' place in American society has changed over the centuries, so, has the focus of African-American literature. Before the American Civil War, the literature primarily consisted of memoirs by people who had escaped from slavery; the genre of slave narratives included accounts of life under slavery to freedom. At the turn of the 20th century, non-fiction works by authors such as William Edward Burghardt Du Bois)and 布克·华盛顿)debated whether to confront or appease racist attitudes in the United States. During the American Civil Rights movement, authors such as 理查德·怀特)and 格温多琳·布鲁克斯)wrote about issues of racial segregation and black nationalism. Today, African-American literature has become accepted as an integral part of American literature, with 亚历克斯·哈利), The Color Purple 艾丽斯· 沃克); and Beloved by Toni Morrison achieving both best-selling and award-winning status.

In broad terms, African-American literature can be defined as writings by people of African descent living in the United States. It is highly varied. African-American literature has generally focused on the role professor Albert J. Raboteau has said, all African-American study "speaks to the deeper meaning of the African-American presence in this nation. This presence has always been a test case of the nation's claims to freedom, democracy, equality, the inclusiveness of all." African-American literature explores the issues of freedom and equality long denied to Blacks in the United States, along with further themes such as African-American culture, racism, religion, slavery, a sense of home,and more.

Characteristics and themes 领域(后殖民文学), although scholars distinguish between the two, saying that "African American literature differs from most post-colonial literature in that it is written by members of a minority community who reside within a nation of vast wealth and economic power." (福音音乐), blues

and rap. This oral poetry also appears in the African-American tradition of Christian sermons, which make and alliteration. African-American literature—especially written poetry, but also prose—has a strong tradition of incorporating all of these forms of oral poetry. These characteristics do not occur in all works by African-American writers.

Some scholars resist using Western literary theory to analyze African-American literature. As the (小亨利‧路易斯‧盖茨)said, "My desire has been to allow the black tradition to speak for itself about its nature and various functions, rather than to read it, or analyze it, in terms of literary theories borrowed whole from other traditions, appropriated from without." One trope common to African-American literature is Signification. Gates claims that signifying ―is a trope in which are (转喻)(提喻), and irony, and also hyperbole(夸张法) an litotes(曲言法), and metalepsis(进一步转喻法).‖ Signification also refers to the way in which African-American ―authors read and critique other African American texts in an act of rhetorical self-definition‖

Historythe,black,allay。

Early African American literature

African American history predates the emergence of the United States as an independent country, and

African-American literature has similarly deep roots. is the author of the oldest known piece of African-American literature: "Bars

Fight". Although written in 1746, the poem was not published until 1855, when it was included in Josiah (马萨诸塞州).

The poet Phillis Wheatley(菲莉斯·惠特莉) (1753–84) published her book Poems on Various Subjects (塞内加尔), Wheatley was captured and sold into slavery at the age of seven. Brought to America, she was owned by a Boston merchant. By the time she was sixteen, she had mastered her new language of English. Her poetry was praised by many of the leading figures of the American Revolution, including George Washington, who thanked her for a poem written in his honor. Some whites found it hard to believe that a Black woman could write such refined

poetry. Wheatley had to defend herself in court to prove that she had written her work. Some critics cite Wheatley's successful defense as the first recognition of African-American literature.

Phillis Wheatley William Wells Brow Our Nig

Another early African-American author was Jupiter Hammon (1711–1806). Hammon, considered the first published Black writer in America, published his poem "An Evening Thought: Salvation by Christ with Penitential Cries" as a broadside in early 1761. In 1778 he wrote an ode to Phillis Wheatley, in which he discussed their shared humanity and common bonds. In 1786, Hammon gave his "Address to the Negroes of the State of New York". Writing at the age of 76 after a lifetime of slavery, Hammon said, "If we should ever get to Heaven, we shall find nobody to reproach us for being black, or for being slaves." He also promoted the idea of 释放) as a way to end slavery. Hammon is thought to have been a slave until his death. .

William Wells Brown (1814–84) and Victor Séjour (1817–74) produced the earliest works of fiction by African-American writers. Séand moved to France at the age of

19. There he published his short story "Le Mulâtre" ("The Mulatto"黑白混血儿) in 1837. It is the first known fiction by an African American, but as it was written in French and published in a French journal, it had apparently no influence on later American literature. Séjour never returned to African-American themes in his subsequent works. Brown, on the other hand, was a prominent abolitionist, lecturer, novelist, playwright, and historian in the United States. Born into slavery in the South, Brown escaped to the North, where he worked for abolitionist causes and was a prolific writer. Brown wrote Clotel; or, The President's Daughter (1853), considered to be the first novel written by an African American. It was based on the persistent rumor that president Thomas Jefferson had fathered a daughter with his slave Sally Hemings(塞利·海明斯). The novel was first published in England.

The first African-American novel published in the United States was Harriet Wilson's Our Nig (1859). It

expressed the difficulties of lives of northern free Blacks.

Black English 黑人英语
篇二:the,black,allay

Characteristics of Black English

Name:刘波 Class: English 142

1. Introduction

After reading the book Gone with the Wind and searching for information about Black English online, I have known something about it. Black people lived as slaves before the American Civil War and now live free. There are great differences between Black English and English and difficulties about understanding Black English, which attracts many scholars to do research on Black English.

2. Characteristics

2.1pronunciation

Here are some aspects about it.

Firstly, it is the deletion of /a/. Many Black speakers delete /a/, e.g: saw-sore, fort-foughtSecondly, the loss of /l/ at the end of some words sometimes is replaced by the sound /w/. For example, “I can help you.” can become “ I can hep you.”[冯红变,2004:20]Thirdly, the consonant is omitted. E.g: fact—fac, .Fourthly, ““th” is sometimes replaced by t, d, f, v. “[张文婷,2012:7]For example, “thin—tin, that—dat, mother—muvah.neither—needer[ˈniːðər]—[„ni:də]” [冯红变,2004:20]Fifthly, consonant clusters will be simplified. Some consonants are to be omitted when they are at the end of a word,especially if the cluster ends with /t/, /d/, /s/ or /z/. Sixthly, vowels added by “ng”/ŋ/, such as sing, thing, ring, etc, they are often pronounced into “ang”.Seventhly, some vowels are omitted. E.g: point-pint

2.2vocabularythe,black,allay。

In Black English,the spelling is based on the pronunciation.For example,“like-lak, business-bizness, African—Affrikun.”[Margaret 2009,p.506]Besides, there are no changes in verb person and number. For example,” he do the same thang they do.Two cats-two cat”.[周文蕊,2001:7]Then some consonants are replaced by „. For example,” when—w‟en, and-an‟”[Margaret 2009, p.506] There are some exceptions: “to-ter, insult-„sult, I-ah ……”[Margaret 2009, p.506]

2.3grammar

In Black English, the simplified words and sentences are used. For example: What goes around comes (whatever you do to someone will always come back to you). Next, they usually use the opposite words to express their meaning. For example, they use love to express their hate. Besides, the English sentence of

double negation is usually used. For example, nobody knows anything. I don‟t say nothing.Next, whatever the form of the subject is, the verb is always singular. For example,she ain‟gwinelak a mule. Finally,” it is the disappearance of the end „s. For example, the dog‟s leg- the dog leg, he walks-he walk.”[高莉]

3. Conclusion

There are many features of Black English I haven‟t mentioned. I would like to emphasize that the differences among pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary. Since the development of Black English, many changes may be made to keep pace with the times. Black English is gradually combined with English. The specific boundary between Black English and English are becoming vague. Above all, Black English is part of English. We should respect their differences.

Reference:

[1]Margaret Mitchell Gone with the Wind [M]上海世纪图书出版社,2009.6

[2]冯红变The Phonological Features of American Black English [J]山西师范大学,山西临汾,2004(20)

[3]高莉,The Phonetic and Grammatical Features of American Black English[J]南通理工学院

[4]周丽蕊,美国黑人英语的语音和语法特征[J]徐州教育学院,2001(16)

[5]张文婷,黑人英语特征分析[J]西安石油大学陕西西安710065,2012(7)

The black cat
篇三:the,black,allay

The black cat

For the most wild, yet most homely narrative which I am about to pen, I neither expect nor solicit belief. Mad indeed would I be to expect it, in a case where my very senses reject their own evidence. Yet, mad an I not – and very surely do I not dream. But to-morrow I die, and to-day I would unburthen my soul. My immediate purpose is to place before the world, plainly, succinctly, and without comment, series of mere household events. In their consequences, these events have terrified – have tortured – have destroyed me. Yet I will not attempt to expound them. To me, they have presented little but Horror – to many they will seem less terrible tan barroques. Hereafter perhaps some intellect may be found which will reduce my phantasm to the common-place – some intellect more calm, more logical, and far less excitable than my own, which will perceive, in the circumstances I detail with awe, nothing more than an ordinary succession of very natural causes and effects.

From my infancy I was noted for the docility and humanity of my disposition, My tenderness of heart was even so conspicuous as to make me the jest of my companions. I was especially fond of animals, and was indulged by my parents with a great variety of pets. With these I spent most of my time, and never was so happy as when feeding and caressing them. This peculiarity of character grew with my growth, and in my manhood, I derived from it one of my principal sources of pleasure. To those who have cherished and affection for a faithful and sagacious dog, I need hardly be the trouble thus derivable. There is something in the unselfish and self-sacrificing love of a brute, which goes directly to the heart of him who has had frequent occasion to test the paltry friendship and gossamer fidelity of mere Man.

2016考研英语阅读题源经济学人文章:Black Friday
篇四:the,black,allay

2016考研英语阅读题源经济学人文章:

Black Friday

Black Friday

黑色星期五

The long weekendthe,black,allay。

漫长的周末

A new, earlier discount frenzy grips Christmasshoppers

新一轮提前促销打折狂潮吸引了众多圣诞购物者

THE rhythms of Christmas used to be so simple. Buypresents in December, eat and drink too much, return unwanted gifts, then hunt bargains inthe January sales. Such habits may now be altered by the arrival on British shores of BlackFriday, an American retail phenomenon.

圣诞的节奏一直都很单一。在12月买礼物,尽情吃喝,再退还那些不中意的礼物,然后在一月大减价之际狂购便宜货到手软。而如今这样的习惯,很可能随着“黑色星期五”—美版“双十一”—登陆不列颠海岸而悄然改变。

Black Friday is the day after Thanksgiving. This year it falls on November 28th. As Thanksgivingday revolves around the eating, so Black Friday revolves around the shopping. It has becomethe biggest day of the year for American retailers as they discount thousands of products,kick-starting the Christmas shopping season. According to one story the name thus refers toshops doing such booming trade that they go from the red into the black. It might equally benamed because of the casualty rate. Shoppers get hurt in the stampede for bargains. Somehave even died.

the,black,allay。

“黑色星期五”就是每年感恩节之后的第一天。今年就是11月28日。像感恩节的主题是美食一样,“黑色星期五”的主题便是购物。因在“黑色星期五”商家们会给成千上万的商品大打折扣开启圣诞购物季,由此这一天成了美国零售商们每年最盛大的一天,有一种说法是,这个名字正说明了那些在这天生意异常兴隆的商家大额进账,转亏为盈(红色记录赤字,黑色记录盈利)。还有一种说法是因为在这天的伤亡率。顾客们会在争抢折扣商品的拥堵人群中受伤。有些人甚至会为此丧命。

Since they do not celebrate Thanksgiving, Brits had never taken to Black Friday, until last year.Then, some British retailers joined American-owned companies like Amazon to introduce bigsavings. This year many more have embraced it. Visa Europe predicts that shoppers will spend6,000 per second on the day. John Lewis, a big London department store, is opening for itslongest day ever, from 8am to 10pm.

因为从来不过感恩节,所以去年之前英国人对黑色星期五一直无感。而其后,部分英国零售商加盟了类似亚马逊这种美国公司来引进各种省钱方式。在今年,已有更多的零售商投入到这些公司的怀抱。据维信欧洲(VisaEurope,信用卡集团)预测,在黑色星期五这一天,购物者们将每秒消费6000英镑。英国一家大型零售商店约翰·路易斯,在这天也会迎来其史上营业时间最长的一天,从早8点直至晚上10点。

With such demand, why stop at one day? Most retailers are now stretching it into the followingweek, at least until Cyber Monday. That's the day after the Black Friday weekend

whenshoppers are supposed to go crazy online, although John Lewis reckons they won't be able towait that long. Last year, its mobile traffic in the peak hour 7-8am was fourteen times higher onBlack Friday than anything it had seen before.

有这般需求,为何只做一天?如今,许多零售商正在将这购物狂潮延伸至“黑色星期五”后的一周,至少延至“网络星期一”。“网络星期一”是“黑色星期五”周末后的第一天,在这天购物者会在网络上疯狂购买,尽管约翰·路易斯断言顾客们不可能等那么久还如此疯狂购物。去年“黑色星期五”这天,约翰·路易斯在早高峰7点至8点间的移动流量是以往所见任何数据要高出十四倍。

For retailers, it all gets people into the buying mood for Christmas early. The only worry, arguesJoshua Bamfield of the Centre for Retail Research, is that shoppers might be loth to fork out atregular prices when the discounts end.

对零售商来说,“黑色星期五”早早的将大众的圣诞购物情绪调动起来了。来自零售研究中心的约书亚班菲尔德认为,唯一担忧的是,购物者们很可能在打折结束后不愿以正常价格购买物品。

1.refer to 涉及;指的是

By way of illustration I'll refer to the behavior ofrabbits.

我将举例说明兔子的行为。

The new law does not refer to land used for farming.

那条新法律并不涉及耕种用地。

2.because of 因为,由于

He was not a particularly good shot because of his eyesight.

他视力不好,算不上是一个出色的射手。

The man was known to the police because of previous convictions.

因为有犯罪前科,警察们都认识这个人。

3.at least 至少;最低限度

Try to eat at least four slices of bread a day.

每天尽量至少吃4片面包。

At least three British golf courses are now owned by the Japanese.

现在英国至少有3家高尔夫球场为日本人所有。

4.suppose to 认为是

There's nothing to keep us here, is there?I suppose not.

这里没有什么让我们留恋的,对吧?我想没有。

Some, I suppose, might even be in positions to influence opinion.

有的人,我认为,甚至有可能影响舆论。

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